An Overview of Title IX’s History in Higher Education

Tufts campus

Title IX: The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in Education


JMC board member, faculty partner, and Co-Director of the Center for American Studies at Christopher Newport University Elizabeth Kaufer Busch co-authored a book with William E. Thro on Title IX and its transformation on college campuses.

Professor Busch is available to give engaging and informative talks on the history and significance of Title IX in higher education. She can be reached at


About the book

Title IX: The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in EducationThis book examines the history and evolution of Title IX, a landmark 1972 law prohibiting sex discrimination at educational institutions receiving federal funding. Elizabeth Kaufer Busch and William Thro illuminate the ways in which the interpretation and implementation of Title IX have been transformed over time to extend far beyond the law’s relatively narrow statutory text. The analysis considers the impact of Title IX on athletics, sexual harassment, sexual assault, and, for a time, transgender discrimination. Combining legal and cultural perspectives and supported by primary documents, Title IX: The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in Education offers a balanced and insightful narrative of interest to anyone studying the history of sex discrimination, educational policy, and the law in the contemporary United States.

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Liz Busch, board memberElizabeth Kaufer Busch is a Professor at Christopher Newport University and the Co-Director of the Center for American Studies. She teaches courses in American political thought, political history, and social thought. Professor Busch has recently published an edited volume exploring contemporary American life titled Democracy Reconsidered as well as an article on the recent history of Feminism and popular culture: “Ally McBeal to Desperate Housewives: a brief history of the postfeminist heroine.” She earned her PhD in American Politics and Political Theory from Michigan State University.

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